TL4 (The Age of Sail) tends to be also called the Age of Exploration or Age of Discovery. Depending on the location it overlaps with the earlier TL3 (The Middle Ages) and later TL5 (The Industrial Revolution).
- Signature Technology: Full-rigged ships, Calculus; Movable type (the printing press)
- Transportation: Stagecoach; three-masted sailing ships; precise navigation
- Weapons and Armor: Muskets and pikes; horse artillery; naval broadsides
- War: Cannon; early bayonets; formal military drill; sailing warships armed with cannon; star forts replace castles.
- Power: Improved windmills; belt drives; clockwork
- Biotechnology/Medicine: Optical microscope makes cells visible; early synthetic medications
- Other Technologies: Cast iron; telescopes; celestial navigation
- Social Organization: Nation-states and absolute monarchy; overseas empires; widespread literacy.
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